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Question: What causes the blood disease thalassemia?
Answer: Thalassemia is a group of blood disorders characterized by a deficiency of hemoglobin, the blood protein that transports oxygen to the tissues. It is caused by genetically determined abnormalities in the synthesis of one or more of the polypeptide chains that make up the globin part of hemoglobin.
Question: What is the disease German measles also known as?
Answer: German measles is more commonly called rubella. It is a viral disease that runs a mild and benign course in most people.
Question: What is the name of a malignant tumour of the bone, most often occurring in males under age 30?
Answer: Also called osteogenic sarcoma, osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumour of the bone. It is found more often in males than in females, mostly in males under age 30, and affects mainly the large long bones, with a predilection for the knee area.
Question: Which pioneering scientist received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1983, when she was 81 years old, for her work on genes in the 1940s and the 1950s?
Answer: American scientist Barbara McClintock won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1983 for her discovery in the 1940s and 1950s of mobile genetic elements, or “jumping genes.” She was the first woman to be the sole winner of this award.
Question: What is Pickwickian syndrome associated with?
Answer: Pickwickian syndrome is a complex of respiratory and circulatory symptoms associated with some cases of extreme obesity. The name originates from a character in Charles Dickens’s The Pickwick Papers.
Question: Who discovered the major blood groups and developed the ABO system of blood typing, which made blood transfusion a routine medical practice?
Answer: Karl Landsteiner, an immunologist and pathologist, received the 1930 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of the major blood groups and development of the ABO system of blood typing, which made blood transfusion a routine medical practice.
Question: Who was the first person to describe the blood parasite responsible for malaria and to recognize it as the cause of that disease?
Answer: Alphonse Laveran, a French physician, pathologist, and parasitologist, discovered the parasite that causes human malaria. While serving as a military surgeon in Algeria in 1880, Laveran discovered the cause of malaria in the course of the autopsies he conducted on victims. He found the causative organism to be a protozoan. For this and later work on protozoal diseases, he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1907.
Question: Which of these viral diseases is also called variola?
Answer: Smallpox, also called variola, was one of the world’s most dreaded plagues until 1977, when it was declared eradicated.
Question: What 16th-century physician wrote that “a doctor must seek out old wives, gipsies, sorcerers, wandering tribes, old robbers, and such outlaws and take lessons from them. A doctor must be a traveller.… Knowledge is experience.”?
Answer: Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, better known as Paracelsus, was a German Swiss physician and alchemist who contributed substantially to the rise of modern medicine, including psychiatric treatment. Soon after taking his doctoral degree in 1516, he set out upon many years of wandering through almost every country in Europe and elsewhere. Everywhere he sought the most effective means of medical treatment. Even before receiving his degree, Paracelsus stated that “a doctor must seek out old wives, gipsies, sorcerers, wandering tribes, old robbers, and such outlaws and take lessons from them. A doctor must be a traveller.… Knowledge is experience.”
Question: Who was the cofounder of modern neurology who greatly influenced a student named Sigmund Freud?
Answer: Jean-Martin Charcot, one of France’s greatest medical teachers and clinicians, was the founder, along with Duchenne de Boulogne, of modern neurology. Charcot had a lifelong association with the Salpetriere Hospital in Paris; there, in 1882, he opened what was to become the greatest neurological clinic of the time in Europe. In 1885 one of his students was Sigmund Freud, and it was Charcot’s employment of hypnosis in an attempt to discover an organic basis for hysteria that stimulated Freud's interest in the psychological origins of neurosis.
Question: Which hormone regulates the level of sugar in the blood and is produced in the pancreas?
Answer: Insulin is the hormone that regulates the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood and is produced by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas.
Question: Which of these is another name for growth hormone?
Answer: Somatotropin, or growth hormone, is a peptide hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. It stimulates growth of bone and essentially all tissues of the body by stimulating protein synthesis and breaking down fat to provide energy.
Question: Which part of the human body does multiple sclerosis affect?
Answer: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the central nervous system. It is characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve fibres of the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.
Question: What is the name of the disorder characterized by the patchy loss of melanin pigment from the skin?
Answer: Vitiligo is a hereditary patchy loss of melanin pigment from the skin. Though the pigment-making cells of the skin, or melanocytes, are structurally intact, they have lost the ability to synthesize the pigment.
Question: If you’re stranded in the Arctic, why should you avoid eating polar bear liver?
Answer: Hypervitaminosis A, also called vitamin A excess, is a toxic condition most frequently produced by a high intake of vitamin A, generally 150 mg daily over a period of several months. Although hypervitaminosis A is most often caused by an excessive, regular intake of vitamin A concentrate, it has also been known to occur among explorers and inhabitants of the Arctic following large meals of the vitamin A-rich polar bear liver.
Question: What determines the blood group in a person?
Answer: The membrane of the red blood cell has on its surface a group of molecules that confer blood group specificity (that is, differentiate blood cells into groups).
Question: Who was the founder of modern psychosurgery?
Answer: A Portuguese neurologist and statesman, António Egas Moniz was the founder of modern psychosurgery. Along with Walter Hess, he was awarded the 1949 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for the development of prefrontal leucotomy (lobotomy) as a radical therapy for certain psychoses, or mental disorders.
Question: Which of these scientists helped in the development of azidothymidine (AZT), the first drug used in the treatment of AIDS?
Answer: Gertrude B. Elion was the American pharmacologist who, along with George H. Hitchings and Sir James W. Black, received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1988 for their development of drugs used to treat several major diseases. Though Elion had officially retired in 1983, she helped oversee the development of azidothymidine (AZT), the first drug used in the treatment of AIDS.
Question: Which of these congenital disorders is characterized by an extra chromosome?
Answer: Down syndrome is a congenital disorder caused by an extra chromosome on the chromosome 21 pair.
Question: Which of these are produced in response to foreign substances called antigens?
Answer: Antibodies are produced in response to substances called antigens. When an alien substance enters the body, the immune system is able to recognize it as foreign because molecules on the surface of the antigen differ from those found in the body. As antibodies circulate, they neutralize antigens by attaching to them.
Question: What is the common name of acetylsalicylic acid, a compound that produces its well-known effects by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins?
Answer: Aspirin is the common name of acetylsalicylic acid. The drug acts by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that are necessary for blood clotting and are noted for sensitizing nerve endings to pain.
Question: What is vertigo?
Answer: Vertigo is a sensation that a person’s surroundings are rotating or that he himself is revolving. Usually the state produces dizziness, mental bewilderment, and confusion.
Question: Which of these conditions is also called “hardening of the arteries”?
Answer: Arteriosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the walls of arteries. The major form of arteriosclerosis is atherosclerosis, in which plaques of fatty deposits form on the inner walls of the arteries.
Question: What type of lung infection is tuberculosis?
Answer: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that is caused by caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis bacteria infect and damage the lungs.
3d illustration human heart. Adult Anatomy Aorta Black Blood Vessel Cardiovascular System Coronary Artery Coronary Sinus Front View Glowing Human Artery Human Heart Human Internal Organ Medical X-ray Myocardium

Medical Terms and Pioneers Quiz

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